The respiratory system represents a complex network of organs engaged in oxygen and carbon dioxide absorption and communication between body and environment, including nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.
It can also be described as a: system of organs and tissues in which air transmission happens, consisting of lungs and airways in air-borne vertebrates, gills in fish and other invertebrates, outer body cover in worms, and sophisticated air ducts in insects.
Human body cells need a steady supply of oxygen to stay alive.
The respiratory system delivers oxygen to the cells of the body when eliminating carbon dioxide, a waste product which, if left to accumulate, may become lethal.
The respiratory system has 3 main parts:
The airway, including the nose, throat, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, holds air from the lungs and the exterior of the body.
The lungs serve as the respiratory system's available units by passing oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood.
Finally, the respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, work together to serve as a piston, moving air into and out of the lungs while breathing. The nose and nasal cavity are the most significant external opening for the respiratory system. They are the first part of the airway of the body — the respiratory tract into which air passes.
The nose is a face structure made up of cartilage, bone,
muscle, and skin that supports and protects the nasal cavity's anterior portion.
The nasal cavity is a porous space filled with hairs and mucus membrane between the nose and skull.
The nasal cavity has the purpose of burning, moisturizing and filtering air through the body until it enters the lungs.
Hair and mucus covering the nasal cavity help contain bacteria, mold, pollen and other toxins in the atmosphere until they can enter the body's inner parts.
Air exiting the body through the nose returns humidity and heat to the nasal cavity prior to exhalation into the environment. The mouth is the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract, also known as the oral cavity.
Most natural respiration takes place via the nasal cavity, but when appropriate, the oral cavity may be used to complement or replace the functions of the nasal cavity.
Since the air pathway that enters the body from the mouth is narrower than the air pathway that enters from the nose,
the mouth does not warm and humidify the air that enters the lungs, as well as the nose, performs this function.
Also, the mouth lacks the hairs and the sticky mucus that filters air through the nasal cavity.
The one advantage of breathing through the mouth is that its shorter distance and greater diameter allows more air to enter the body quickly. The pharynx, also known as the throat, is a muscle funnel that extends from the back of the nasal cavity to the upper end of the esophagus and larynx.
The pharynx is split into three regions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx, respectively.
The nasopharynx is the pharynx's higher portion located towards the back of the nasal cavity.
Inhaled breath from the nasal cavity travels into the nasopharynx and descends into the oropharynx, which is situated at the rear of the oral cavity.
At the oropharynx, the air that is inhaled through the oral cavity enters the pharynx.
So the inhaled air travels down into the laryngopharynx, where the epiglottis diverts it into the larynx gap.
The epiglottis is an elastic cartilage flap that serves as a transition from the trachea to the esophagus.
The epiglottis guarantees that air flows through the trachea by protecting the opening to the esophagus since the pharynx is often used to swallow food.
During the swallowing process, the epiglottis moves to protect the toensure of the trachea where food reaches the esophagus, and to avoid coughing.
The larynx, also known as the speech tube, is a small part of the airway linking the laryngopharynx with the trachea. The larynx is in the front of the body, just behind the hyoid bone just above the trachea.
Many layers of cartilage make up the larynx, which gives it its shape. The epiglottis is one of the larynx's cartilage bits, which acts as the larynx's cover when swallowing.
The thyroid cartilage, often referred to as Adam's apple since it is most commonly enlarged and visible in adult males is inferior to the epiglottis.
The thyroid holds open the larynx's anterior end, and protect the vocal folds. The ring-shaped cricoid cartilage that holds the larynx open and protects its posterior end is inferior to the thyroid cartilage.
The larynx includes, in addition to cartilage, special structures known as vocal folds that allow the body to create the sounds of speech and music.
The vocal folds are mucous membrane folds that vibrate to produce vocal sounds. It is possible to adjust the stress and vibration speed of the vocal folds and adjust the pitch they provide. e.
The trachea, or windpipe, is a 5-inch long tube consisting of C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
The trachea links the larynx to the bronchi and allows oxygen to flow through the thorax and into the spin.
The circles of cartilage make up the trachea cause it to still stay exposed to air.
The open end of the cartilage rings faces the esophagus first, allowing the throat to extend into the area filled by the trachea to absorb loads of food passing into the esophagus.
The primary purpose of the trachea is to provide a clear airway for air to enter and escape the lungs.
Cilia on the surface of the epithelial cells pass the mucus superior to the pharynx where it can be absorbed and digested in the gastrointestinal tract.
At the lower end of the trachea, the airways break between the branches of the left and right, known as the main bronchi.
Until splitting out into smaller secondary bronchi, the left and right bronchi pass through each lung.
The secondary bronchi contain oxygen in the lung lobes — 2 in the left lung and 3 in the right lung. In turn, the secondary bronchi partitioned into much smaller tertiary bronchi within each lobe.
The tertiary bronchi divided into a lot of smaller bronchioles that spread across the lungs.
Growing bronchiole further splits into several smaller branches with a diameter of less than an amillimeter called terminal bronchioles.
Finally, the millions of tiny terminal bronchioles carry oxygen to the alveoli of the lungs. When the airway divides between the tree-like branches of the bronchioles and bronchioles, the composition of the walls of the airway is starting to alter.
The primary bronchi contain several C-shaped cartilage rings that keep the airway tightly open and giving the bronchi a rounded circle or letter D in a cross-sectional shape like.
When the bronchi branch into secondary and tertiary bronchi, the cartilage grows broader spaced, and the muscle and elastin collagen in the walls are thicker.
The bronchioles differ from the bronchi form, as they have no cartilage at all.
The involvement of smooth muscles and elastin makes it possible for the smaller bronchi and bronchioles to be more robust and contractile. The primary purpose of the bronchi and bronchioles is to bring oxygen from the trachea into the lungs.
As the body needs additional amounts of blood, for example during exercise, the smooth muscle relaxes the bronchi and bronchioles.
The dilated airway provides reduced ventilation resistance and helps more air to travel into and out of the lungs.
The smooth muscle fibers can contract to prevent hyperventilation during rest periods.
The bronchi and bronchioles also use their epithelial lining's mucus and cilia to catch and transfer particles and other toxins away from the lungs. Lungs are a pair of large, spongy organs located in the lateral thorax to the diaphragm's heartland superior.
Each lung is enclosed by a pleural membrane that provides expandable space for the lung with, as well as a negative pressure area, compared to the outside of the body.
The negative pressure helps the lungs fill with oxygen slowly as they calm. Because of the heart pointing to the left side of the body, the left and right lungs are slightly different in size and shape.
Therefore, the left lung is significantly thinner than the right lung and consisting of two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes.
The interior of the lungs is composed of spongy tissues containing several capillaries and approximately 30 million tiny sacs known as alveoli.
The alveoli are cup-shaped structures located at the end of the bronchioles terminal and lined by capillaries.
The alveoli are covered with a small, transparent epithelium that enables the air entering
the alveoli to move their gasses into the capillaries with the blood going into.
Infections of the nose, mouth, and lung are conditions which react very well to essential oils care.
Inhalation is a very effective way to use their properties, for 'though the main part will be exhaled directly by the
lungs after arriving in the bronchi, they cause an increased bronchial secretion (a protective reaction) that is beneficial to many respiratory conditions.'
By inhalation, they are absorbed much further into the bloodstream than by oral contact.
Additionally, most of the essential oils that are ingested by the bloodstream are then excreted into the lungs, with a small portion of the urine.
Nose, throat, and lung infections are conditions that respond very well to treatment with essential oils.
Inhalation is a very effective way of utilizing its properties, because 'though the main part of the bronchi will be
directly exhaled by the lungs, it causes an increased bronchial secretion (a protective reaction) that is beneficial to many respiratory diseases.'
They are absorbed into the bloodstream by inhalation even faster than by oral administration.
In addition, most essential oils that are absorbed from the stomach are then excreted through the lungs, only a small part of the urine.
Expectorants for catarrh, sinusitis, cough, bronchitis, etc.;
e.g., eucalyptus, pine, thyme, myrrh, sandalwood, fennel.
Antispasmodics for colic, asthma, dry cough, whooping cough,
etc.; e.g., hyssop, cypress, Atlas cedarwood, bergamot, chamomile, cajeput.
Balsamic agents for colds, chills, congestion, etc.;
e.g., benzoin, frankincense, Tolu balsam, Peru balsam, myrrh.
Antiseptics for 'flu, colds, sore throat, tonsillitis, gingivitis, etc.;
e.g., thyme, sage, eucalyptus, hyssop, pine, cajeput, tea tree, borneol.
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